Author: Nelda Moffatt


Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire

Charlemagne ended his reign as he began it: by fighting to defend his capital at Aix la Chapelle (now Aachen). First he fought the neighboring Saxons. In the end, he fought the Danes, who were part of the Scandinavian expansion that grew with the onset of a five-century warming trend (800 to 1300). By then he was an old man of 70. The Danes exhausted him. He was carried back on a litter and . . .

City of God

Augustine’s City of God

Mongol Huns from Asia invaded Europe. Visigoths fled from their Black Sea homeland. Alaric led them in the sack of Rome in 410, then settled in Spain.

When Rome was sacked, refugees fled to their estates in North Africa. They questioned whether the new Christian religion caused the sacking. It happened only two decades after Theodosius made it the state religion, while Rome had been s . . .


Christ’s Birth and Turn to Europe

Jesus was born in the backwater province of Judea during the reign of Augustus. He
was no more than an insignificant census statistic hardly worth noting compared to
the grandeur of the Augustan age of imperial Rome. Yet in 300 years Christianity
would become the state religion of a divided Roman Empire. In 400 years, while the
Roman west lay crumbling, Christianity would lay the foundat . . .


God’s Providence

It was no accident that God led Israel out of Egypt while the Sea People
battered the coast. It was no accident that God led them through forty
years in the wilderness, while their Creator-concept was reinforced and
while God prepared the most opportune time for them to enter and claim
the Promised Land. But all the while, they murmured and doubted God’s
Providence. After all, they s . . .


Pre-civilization Begins with the Tower of Babel

After the flood, man's actions produced a balance sheet of his own accounting.
After all, he ate of the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil. Surely he had the
sense and good judgment for moral decency. But instead of judging his own
actions, he was always more inclined to mete out “justice” and punishment to
others. Law and government soon followed in the pre-civ dawning of civilizat . . .